GrandDesigns Watch on iView. Grand Designs Australia Based on the UK series and hosted by architect Peter Maddison, Grand Designs Australia charts the in-depth process of elaborate design projects undertaken by self-builders - from initial blueprints to completion. Grand Designs New Zealand Architect Chris Moller returns for a third season of Grand Designs New Zealand, to share more stories of creative and enterprising New Zealanders who take on the challenge of building their own unique and inspirational homes.
Presented by Kevin McCloud. Grandpa Honeyant Storytime Grandpa Honeyant Storytime is a 25 episode series comprising of narrated stories told by an indigenous character named Grandpa Honeyant. When he puts the cap on Grandpa shrinks and creates comic mayhem, but somehow Grandpa and Jason always manage to save the day. It's teamwork!
Grantchester Set in the English countryside, Grantchester follows two unlikely allies as they solve a series of cases that reveal the dark side of early s England. Griff's Great Britain Following the success of A Great Welsh Adventure, Griff Rhys Jones sets out on a typically intrepid series of explorations and challenges in this brand new, eight-part series. Grojband year-old Corey Riffen starts a Garage Band with his three best friends and quickly realises that their band sucks - like a lot. It's not their music or ever-changing image that's the problem. It's Corey's lack of lyrics.
Guess How Much I Love You In the first television adaptation of the classic picture book, this series follows the adventures of Little Nutbrown Hare and his father, Big Nutbrown Hare and their efforts to measure how much they love each other. Determined to return their friend back to his mother, the friends venture on a journey into the unknown woods. Guilty Guilty recreates the final hours of Myuran Sukumaran, before his execution.
This deeply moving film raises questions about rehabilitation and the death penalty and whether we have the right to take a life in this way. Hack To The Future In this competition inventors pitch their handy innovations that range in creativity! Only one can be the winner and have eternal hack glory in the Hack galaxy, selected by the purpose-built Hack Capacitor.
Handball Heroes Slide on your sweatbands and join our hosts Alannah and Joel as they go on an action-packed search for the most skilled of handball manoeuvres to document in the Handball Heroes Handbook. Hank Zipzer Inspired by the true life experiences of Henry Winkler, this winning series about the world's greatest underachiever is funny, fast-paced, touching, truthful and insightful. How will he get out of this one? Hannah Gadsby's Nakedy Nudes In this two-part arts documentary, Hannah Gadsby unravels the apparently simple practice of recreating our own nude human form.
Taking a close look at one of the most enduring subjects in western art history. Armed with her rapier wit and a desire to pick beneath the paint, she will travel across the continent on a mission to debunk the myths of the Australian identity as defined by our art. Hard Quiz Host Tom Gleeson sets out to find Australia's hardest quiz champion, pitting four contestants against each other in a battle of attrition. Harrow When a dark secret from this past threatens to be exposed, unorthodox and brilliant medical examiner, Doctor Daniel Harrow, must use all his forensic skills to keep it buried forever.
Hawke: The Larrikin And The Leader We've never been so wary of politicians, but there was a time when things were different. This two part biography takes a revelatory look at the times and leadership that made Bob Hawke a Prime Minister we'd never forget. Hear Me Out Get both sides of the story as two people come together to discuss some of the hot button topics in Australian society. In this six part series, William gets up close and personal with some of Australia's diverse birdlife like never before.
Heroes Heroes is a celebration of the history-making first AFL Women's season from its breathtaking opening night through to its dramatic conclusion - as told by football's new wave of pioneers. Hey Duggee 'The Squirrel Club' is run by a big friendly dog called Duggee - a place where kids take part in all kinds of activities, have adventures and earn activity badges all along the way.
History Hunters Based in a museum space, the four corridors signify the four corners of the Earth, the Hosts trigger the stories and then pursue knowledge by time travelling through the corridors to a time and place in the past. Hitting Home With Sarah Ferguson Award-winning journalist Sarah Ferguson spends five months on the frontline of our national domestic violence crisis.
Homemade History Every day in the homes, backyards and workplaces of ordinary people, hundreds of personal stories unfold. We follow 13 of these stories that have been captured by amateur cinematographers. Is a live action preschool show that is inspired by circus and physical comedy. The show features 6 characters and is set in the colourful town of Hoopla. Hoot Hoot Go! From Giggle and Hoot comes a new series. Hootabelle and a new character, Hootly, are the best of friends and together these three owl pals can do anything! House Of Anubis Follows a group of students who live together in Anubis House - an English elite boarding school, where they uncover and solve hidden mysteries whilst dealing with the highs and lows of their teenage years.
Packed with surprising science this three-part series reveals the crucial steps to living a longer, healthier life. Howards End Howards End is the story of two independent and unconventional sisters and the men in their lives seeking love and meaning as they navigate an ever-changing world. Humans A drama series where the latest must-have gadget for a busy family is a synth - a life-like humanoid. Humpty's Big Adventure Get ready as Humpty and his friends head off on some amazing sporting adventures. I Do: 40 Years Of Mardi Gras James and Stuart have invited close friends, family - and , extra witnesses - to celebrate their wedding at the 40th Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras in the year of marriage equality.
Or so we all think but they've got a thing or two to say about that. In I'm a Creepy Crawly, the insects invite us into their alien world to set the record straight. I'm A Fish I'm a Fish features a variety of sea creatures who invite us into their underwater world. They tell us all sorts of fun and interesting facts about where they live, what they do and how they survive in such deep places!
Idiotsitter When wild child Gene is put under house arrest in her family's mansion, her parents hire buttoned-up nanny Billie to look after her. Trapped in each other's company, the two strike up an unlikely friendship. Ill Behaviour From the BAFTA-winning co-creator of Peep Show, a dementedly dark comedy thriller about the limits and lunacies of friendship, crossing every boundary imaginable to save a life.
In My Shoes: China A unique child led view looking at how the geographical features of three diverse countries have shaped the way people live and work. In The Night Garden The Night Garden explores the magical place that exists between waking and sleeping in a child's imagination. Indian Summers New drama set against the sweeping backdrop of the Himalayas and tea plantations of Northern India during the dramatic last years of British rule in India.
Innocent The compelling story of David Collier who has served seven years in prison after being convicted of murdering his wife Tara. He's lost everything he held dear: his wife, his two children and even the house he owned. Insert Name Here Sue Perkins presents this new comedy panel show about people who all have one thing in common - they all have the same first name. Inside The Commons In this major new four-part documentary series, filmed over a year in the run up to the general election, reporter Michael Cockerell takes us into the heart of British democracy, the House of Commons.
Insiders Barrie Cassidy presents Australia's most popular political program. Insiders Watch on iView. They investigate murder and corruption set against the turbulent tide of s Britain. Jack Irish: Dead Point When a high profile judge commissions Jack Irish to locate a mysterious red book, Jack is thrown into a world of sexy club owners, drug dealers and unhinged killers. Jamaica Inn Set in against the forbidding backdrop of the windswept and isolated Cornish moors, this is an epic coming-of-age story charting the journey of young and spirited Mary Yellan.
Jamie's Got Tentacles! Jamie lived a charmed life on the planet Blurb until the day that horrible aliens changed the course of his existence. Jamillah and Aladdin When Jamillah finds a magic lamp she is transported back to ancient Baghdad. There she meets Aladdin and together they embark on epic adventures.
Janet King Now at the National Crime Commission, Janet King's investigation into the death of a young cricketer uncovers a web of match fixing, performance enhancing drugs, money laundering, kickbacks and murder. Japanizi: Going, Going, Gong! You will experience the zany world of Japanese game show culture complete with conveyor belts and velcro walls! Jemima's Big Adventure Get swept away with Jemima and Luke Carroll as they are invited on the ultimate play date, through the red garden doorway and into the imagination of Australian preschoolers.
Jesus: Countdown To Calvary Hugh Bonneville reveals how a perfect storm of political intrigue, power struggles and clashing religious passions combined, in a single week, to cause the event that changed the world: the killing of Jesus. Jillaroo School The Australian outback; a place the cowboy, the Jackaroo, calls home.
But in a mining boom Jackaroos left the land; enter five wannabe Jillaroos. To succeed they'll need to show determination and a whole lot of grit. She takes no prisoners, insulting all and sundry. In this tipple-tastic travel show the two funny ladies head to the Champagne region of France to find out how their favourite glass of fizz is made. Joey's Big Adventure Play School's new toy Joey jumps into a big adventure and explores the world of baby animals. Join Play School presenters Miranda, Luke, and Rachel as they meet and uncover interesting facts about a range of baby animals.
Ready to leave the world of crime-solving behind, this may be Creek's most mysterious case yet. She has always loved trees but now with failing eyesight she's taking time out to discover what really makes them tick. Julia Zemiro's Home Delivery Back for a sixth series, the playful and always entertaining Julia Zemiro walks notable people through their former lives, and helps uncover the people, places and events that shaped them into the people they are today. Playschool presenter Justine Clarke sings songs for and with children. Justine Clarke: Pyjama Jam Justine Clarke sings getting-ready-for-bed songs for the whole family to join in with.
When Yui Hirasawa enters high school, she wants to join a club but can't decide which one is right for her. Fortunately, the Light Music Club is desperate to find another member or they'll be disbanded! Pokie Nation They're rigged, they're addictive and they're everywhere. For the first time, the masterminds behind pokie machines reveal how they're programmed for addiction. Have governments become the biggest addicts of all? Here on the flood plains and ancient sculptured escarpments of Australia's largest terrestrial national park, danger and great beauty are often.
Kamisama Kiss Nanami was just a normal high school girl down on her luck until a stranger's lips marked her as the new Land God and turned her world upside down. Kangaroo Dundee This entertaining six-part series follows the work of Chris 'Brolga' Barnes, a man dedicated to rescuing and raising orphan kangaroos. Who says the world works the way grown ups think it should? Things can always be different if you just imagine Monty is a spirited boy of 6, with a vivid imagination and his best friend is Jimmy Jones, the family pet pig. Keeping Australia Safe If we could take a snapshot of what it takes to keep Aussies safe, how would it look?
This 6 part series was shot over a single hour period with privileged access to those entrusted with our national and personal security. Grace, Pip and Tim have all the inside info on what shows are launching and when, and how to get your face on the channel! Kev Carmody: Songman This program captures the creative process of one of Australia's most celebrated songwriters, Kev Carmody, as he sets out on his latest musical adventure.
Kid Vs Kid With the help of science guys Luke and Wyatt, a human child and baby goat get creative in a friendly competition to determine who the better kid is! Kiki And Kitty Kiki and Kitty follows the adventures of a young, black woman in a big, white world, where her vagina is a big, black woman AND her best friend. Kiri When a young girl goes missing on an unsupervised visit to her grandparents, her social worker is publicly blamed by the police, the press, and even her colleagues for putting the girl at risk.
What's wrong with teenagers? Why are babies so angry? And of course, are all women who own cats mental? Kuu Kuu Harajuku Five best friends chase their dreams of musical stardom together, but find themselves fighting their way through a wild series of Kuu Kuu adventures. Lachy takes the child viewer on an early childhood musical adventure in every episode.
Music is a part of every moment of Lachy! Lady Vocab Lady Vocab is a talented singer who loves to sing about words. Lah-Lah's Adventures Take a ride down Lah-Lah Lane where you will first meet the enchanting central character Lah-Lah, who is inquisitive, clever and loves to sing. Lah-Lah and her band negotiate their way through the trickiest of situations. Lah-Lah's Adventures: Songs Combining live action with animated backdrops, the band introduces kids to an inspiring world of music and instruments of all shapes and sizes.
Lah-Lah's Christmas Combining live action with animated backdrops, the band introduces kids to an inspiring world of music and instruments of all shapes and sizes at Christmas. Landline Pip Courtney hosts Australia's pre-eminent regional and rural television program covering farming, weather, food, innovation, mining, fisheries, agribusiness, commodity prices and other issues affecting regional communities. Landline Weather Pip Courtney and Landline reporters around the country bring you up to date with the issues affecting rural and regional Australia including farming, agriculture, food, economics, innovation, climate, infrastructure and more.
Last Tango In Halifax The Bafta-winning drama returns with the story of sweethearts reunited after nearly 60 years, as they negotiate the highs and lows of life and relationships. Lateline Presented by Emma Alberici, Lateline provides original journalism and investigations, quality analysis and insightful interviews, combined with a fresh approach to telling important stories. Lawrence of Suburbia is a metaphorical camel ride through the spiritual tundra of the suburbs. She takes us into the courts, and the places where our law has been made.
Lest We Forget What? When we reflect on WWI what are we remembering? The facts, or just one small part of the Anzac story, a story steeped in legend? Ask yourself this question when Anzac Day comes about - Lest we forget what? Let's Go! A high-octane travel series hosted by Grace Koh, who takes up challenges from kids all around Australia to 'Walk', 'Meet', 'Splash', 'Eat' and 'Jump' around their hometowns. Lily's Driftwood Bay Driftwood Bay is a special island that exists in the imagination of Lily, who creates a world of adventure and friendship from different treasures she finds washed up on the beach.
Line Of Duty Line of Duty returns for a second series, featuring a new police corruption story told over six one-hour episodes. Little Britain Whingeing Poms? Beer loving? Soccer mad? Just who are the British? Find out in this hilarious character-based, sketch comedy series. Little Princess The Little Princess is just like any other 4-yr-old. She's shy, exuberant and boisterous in turns. Little Roy Little Roy follows the everyday adventures of five-year-old Roy O'Brien, an enthusiastic, inquisitive and playful little boy.
He's just like every other kid his age, except for one thing - he's a cartoon! Catch the best of British stand-up comedy with all new episodes. Lockie Leonard After an endless summer, Lockie Leonard and his family are back for another series of mayhem, laughter and the occasional tear. The boy decides the penguin must be lost and tries to return him. Together they set out on a journey to the South Pole. Louis Theroux: African Hunting Holiday Louis investigates the elite world of well-heeled American hunters who pay top dollar for the ultimate luxury adventure experience: a chance to shoot big game in Africa.
Louis Theroux: America's Medicated Kids Louis Theroux meets American families who have decided to medicate their kids to control their unruly behaviour. Louis Theroux: America's Most Dangerous Pets Louis Theroux meets the people who own animals like tigers, lions and chimpanzees and asks what drives them to keep these wild, and potentially dangerous, creatures as pets. Louis Theroux: Behind Bars Louis investigates San Quentin, the oldest and most notorious maximum security prison in California - and the only one with a death row. Louis Theroux: By Reason of Insanity In this two-part series, award-winning journalist Louis Theroux explores how society treats those who have committed crimes - at times horrifically violent, while in the grip of severe mental illness.
The city is changing so rapidly that formal structures of law and order can't keep pace with its population. Many citizens are turning to private security companies, with brutal methods, to help protect them and their property. Louis Theroux: Law And Disorder in Philadelphia Louis Theroux signs up for his most dangerous assignment - patrolling the crime-ridden streets of Philadelphia with the local law enforcement - to find out why the crime and violence in the city is so bad. Louis Theroux: Miami Mega Jail Louis Theroux spends some time locked up with the inmates of one of the largest jails in the world - Miami's mega jail.
Louis Theroux: My Scientology Movie Filmmaker Louis Theroux is denied admittance into the Church of Scientology's headquarters, setting into motion a clever, confrontational, and funny plan to try and reveal the inner workings of the mysterious organisation. Now Louis returns to find the family more hateful than ever. Louis Theroux: Savile In light of the unmasking of Jimmy Savile as a predatory sex offender, and 15 years on from the BBC documentary When Louis Met Jimmy, Theroux sets out to understand how he was able to get away with a long litany of crimes.
Louis Theroux: The Ultra Zionists Louis Theroux spends time with a small and very committed subculture of ultra-nationalist Jewish settlers in the occupied territories in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Louis Theroux: Transgender Kids Award-winning journalist Louis Theroux travels to San Francisco where medical professionals are helping kids who say they were born in the wrong body to transition from boy to girl or girl to boy at younger ages.
Louis Theroux: Twilight Of The Porn Stars Louis Theroux travels to California, home of America's adult entertainment industry, to meet the porn stars and find out how the growth of the internet has changed the industry. Louis Theroux: Under the Knife Louis Theroux reveals the startling reality of a sweeping obsession with vanity - plastic surgery. Can larger breasts or tighter abs really make a person happier? Luo Bao Bei Luo Bao Bei is a bright and spirited 7-year old girl with a vivid imagination, on a quest to understand the world around her.
With her friends and animal companions by her side she navigates the excitement of childhood. Luther When a savagely intelligent killer leaves a trail of bodies but no trace of his identity, Luther is drawn back to the job and into his most disturbing case yet.
Maggie Beer's Christmas Feast Maggie invites some special guests to the ultimate Australian Christmas feast under the gum trees in the beautiful surroundings of her own property in the Barossa Valley. Maigret In four women are stabbed to death in Montmartre after dark. Justice minister Morel leans on chief Inspector Maigret to catch the murderer. He sets a trap, using a policewoman as a decoy. When a blizzard traps everyone inside the school, Sun Hi, Jodi, and Corki learn the true meaning of Christmas.
Meanwhile, a mysterious new student arrives at school. Making Child Prodigies Follow five extraordinarily talented Australian children and their families, as we take an intimate and candid look at their lives at a pivotal time in their careers and ask what does it take to be a child prodigy? Originally staged in Melbourne and then toured across Australia.
Making Muriel Making Muriel gives audiences exclusive behind the scenes access as P. Hogan adapts his iconic film, Muriel's Wedding into a stage musical for Sydney Theatre Company, 23 years after the film was a surprise box office hit. Man Up Radio star, Gus Worland, is on a mission to break the silence around male suicide. But first, he has to challenge our ideas about what it means to be an Aussie man. Martin Clunes: Man And Beast Martin Clunes travels the world to uncover some of the remarkable and unique relationships between man and beast from birds to bears, pets to primates, involving ancient and modern techniques and partnerships.
Mary And Mohammad year-old Mary befriends an Afghanistan asylum seeker through the unlikely gift of a woollen beanie. Mary Berry's Absolute Christmas Favourites The much loved, national treasure Mary Berry celebrates some of her most inspired dishes by showing us how to make them while sharing her extraordinary knowledge from more than 50 years of cooking. Mary Berry's Absolute Favourites Christmas Specials The much loved, national treasure Mary Berry celebrates some of her most inspired dishes by showing us how to make them while sharing her extraordinary knowledge from more than 50 years of cooking.
Masha And The Bear With kindness and comedy in its heart, this series follows the adventures of a little girl, Masha and her friend, The Bear. Their relationship is a metaphor for how a child interacts with the big world. Matilda cooks her way through the very best of US and British dishes whilst blogging along the way and adding her own unique twists to the food. Matter Of Fact With Stan Grant Making sense of a rapidly changing world, Stan Grant presents the new show speaking to smart people about big ideas to uncover what they know, not what they think.
Because knowledge matters more than opinions. Maurice's Big Adventure Play School's much loved teddy bear Maurice is invited along to experience important events in a preschooler's life, joining his young friends as they embark on exciting adventures into school, new family members and beyond. Media Watch Media Watch is Australia's leading forum for media analysis and comment. Presented by Paul Barry, the program shines the spotlight on those who make the news, uncovering conflicts of interest, misrepresentation and manipulation.
MediaWatch Watch on iView. Meet our latest bunch of stars and find out about their families, hobbies, jokes and heroes! Meet The Mavericks Two well known cultural figures sit down for a free-ranging exchange of ideas, and to chat about their passions, inspirations, shared experiences, and creative processes. Melbourne Comedy Festival Upfront: The Queens Of Comedy Comedy's fiercest and funniest ladies join forces to deliver a formidable night that sees the most popular and irreverent comics on the scene shattering stereotypes and raising the roof with laughs.
Hosted by Matt Okine, each performer shares their best material. Merry Christmas Music Video. Message Stick Message Stick offers engaging, topical and entertaining insight into contemporary Indigenous life. Messy Goes To Okido Messy is a monster who leads us on a journey under the bed, through the Vortex of Socks and into Okido World, where anything is possible and every question leads to a new adventure.
With music from Kylie Minogue and Pixie Lott. Michael visits six of the UK's most prestigious entertainment venues to unearth comedy's brightest talent. Packed with razor-sharp observations and fizzing with energy, Michael McIntyre: Showtime is a comedy master class. Michael Mosley and James Wong reveal the delicious physics, chemistry and biology hidden inside our food. Miffy's Adventures Big And Small Follow Miffy, a charming bunny-rabbit as she embarks on adventures, big and small - exploring the exciting world around her, with her friends and family.
Mike The Knight A CG-animated action-packed series following the adventures of young Mike, an energetic, cheeky yet bountiful knight-in-training who is driven by his passion to help others, and along the way, be the best knight he can be. Minibeast Heroes Minibeasts Heroes is an animated series that takes you up close and personal with six Aussie bugs to show you how they save the world. Their mission is to keep Hawk Moth, who wants to steal their Miraculouses, from wreaking havoc on the town. Miriam's Big American Adventure Miriam Margolyes embarks on an epic road trip through the heartland of America to learn more about the people who are reshaping the nation.
Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries Our glamorous lady detective, The Honourable Miss Phryne Fisher, swans into early Melbourne, fighting injustice with her pearl-handled pistol and her dagger-sharp wit. Mister Maker Mister Maker is an arts and craft show that combines live action, graphics and animation to show brilliant art techniques in both 2D and 3D.
Mister Maker Around The World Mister Maker takes his brilliant artistic talents around the globe to help mini-makers with arty challenges. Packing up his 'Travelling Make Case' he sets off on his travels to have a go at art and get making. Mock The Week Comedy show combining the best elements of panel show, stand-up and improvised games with two teams of comedians taking a satirical swipe at the news and world events. Mofy Follow the many adventures of Mofy, a shy and tender rabbit who lives in a cotton ball, as she learns to understand and deal with different feelings, such as loneliness, jealousy, joy, and empathy.
Mornings With Joe O'Brien Joe O'Brien guides you through the morning with a mix of the very latest news, fast and accurate analysis, experts and guests who provide insightful context and live crosses to the scene of events as they unfold. Mouk An animated series that follows the adventures of friends Mouk and Chavapa - two globe trotters who travel around the world riding their bikes. Move It Mob Style An Indigenous youth dance-based health and fitness program which teaches viewers mad dance routines and showcases the latest Indigenous hip hop beats while also delivering strong health messages.
Murder In Successville Successville is a surreal place with a high celebrity homicide count. DI Sleet enlists the help of a genuine celebrity sidekick to solve the latest high-profile murder. Together they crack the case and catch the killer. Murder, She Wrote Professional writer and amateur sleuth Jessica Fletcher uses her intellect, charm, and persistence to get to the bottom of every crime she encounters.
Muriel Matters! Adelaide-born actress Muriel Matters made headlines in as 'that daring Australian girl' for her bold escapades in the struggle for women's rights in Britain. My Great Big Adventure During this special, Kayne Tremills is joined by friends Steph, Takaya and Nancy, and their first big challenge is to understand mental health and what it means to young Australians.
My Life Documentary series following the highs and lows of children across the world, each with a unique story to tell. My Mother's Lost Children An eccentric Jewish Australian family is thrown into turmoil when two stolen children reappear after 40 years. Spanning five countries, this is the story of filmmaker Danny Ben-Moshe's extraordinary family saga. My Place Continuing the story of one spot in Australia told by the children who live there over years. Series 2 tells their tales from to before European settlement.
My Year 12 Life Meet 14 Australian students as they self-document their final year of high school through daily video diaries. The stresses of this launch-pad year starts on day one as they delve into the pressures of the ATAR. Mystery Road When there is a mysterious disappearance on an outback cattle station, Detective Jay Swan Aaron Pedersen is assigned to investigate. From Prime Ministers, visiting international figures, religious leaders, innovators, political, business and community leaders.
National Treasure Paul Finchley is one half of a much loved British comedy double act, a cherished household name, but Paul's life is shaken to its foundations when he's arrested after an accusation of rape CAST: Robbie Coltrane, Julie Walters. National Wrap Patricia Karvelas hosts a sharp, relatable interview-based national affairs program that will set the agenda for the week, interrogating experts and leaders in their field on issues beyond the immediate news cycle.
Nature's Microworlds This stunning series delves deep into the heart of these habitats, breaking down each intricate ecosystem, introducing the animals that live there, and revealing the fine balances of its existence. Never Mind the Buzzcocks UK's iconic, irreverent pop quiz series with guest competitors from the worlds of music, TV and comedy.
New Year's Eve A four-hour event live from the forecourt of the Sydney Opera House featuring The Early Night Show for kids and families, the family fireworks, a concert celebrating the iconic songs of Countdown and the Midnight Fireworks. Grace, Pip and Tim bring you all the latest from the entertainment world, viral videos, special guests and more!
News To Me Featurettes Featurettes of the weekly wrap-up panel and clip show. Nippers Join the South Maroubra Nippers as they run, swim, paddle and rescue, battle nature, face their fears and push themselves beyond their comfort zone during training and carnivals so they can become lifesavers of the future. Using a pioneering approach from Sweden, Dr. Javid creates a gender-neutral school that will turn conventions on their head. No Offence The action heats up in this gripping eight-part crime drama from the makers of 'Shameless', centring on a group of police officers working in a chaotic Manchester community.
Illusions of Time (Enterprising Endeavour) - Kindle edition by John LaJoie. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Illusions of Time (Enterprising Endeavour) eBook: John LaJoie: ufatolyt.ml: Kindle Store.
Noddy travels to the four corners of Toyland to investigate mysteries. Non Daylight Savings. Numb Chucks Using their imaginary 'kung-fu-bility', Dilweed and Fungus have now devoted their lives to doing good deeds and protecting the quiet woodland town of Ding-a-Ling Springs and its citizens using their imaginary 'kung fu' skills. Octonauts An intrepid band of explorers roam the oceans in search of adventure and fun. Led by a valiant polar bear and a daredevil kitten, these talented critters are always ready to embark on an exciting new mission.
Octonauts And The Mariana Trench Adventure Tweak has designed a new Deep Sea Station to study the deepest parts of the ocean, but the Octonauts face multiple challenges - from getting it down there, to the extreme environment and strange creatures they'll meet. Octonauts Creature Reports The Creature Reports are one-minute, musical, poem-like sequences which recap the facts learned about the sea creature that the Octonauts encountered in the associated episode.
Octonauts Special: The Over Under Adventure The mission to explore Antarctica becomes a desperate rescue as a group of sea stars and urchins is threatened by a rare underwater icicle that can freeze creatures on the seabed. Odd Squad Agents Olive and Otto work for an organisation run by kids that investigate anything strange, weird and especially odd. Their job is to put things right again. Who do they work for? They work for Odd Squad. Oddbods Watch 7 friends survive the perils of everyday life, as ordinary situations spiral into extraordinary events.
A comedy that captures the madcap yet charming antics of the Oddbods - celebrating success where they can find it. Officially Amazing Officially Amazing is back! Offsiders Kelli Underwood presents the show that gets to the centre of the big sporting issues of the past seven days. A panel of sportswriters, experts and pundits discuss the results on field and the key issues off field. Offsiders Watch on iView. Presented by Kelli Underwood.
Old School Ted McCabe, a retired cop, and Lennie Cahill a retired crim, get together to solve crimes, unravel scams and make some cash, while avoiding the wrath of the police and the underworld. Olivia Olivia is a 6-year-old pig with a boundless imagination. Whether at home or at school with friends, you never know what she will think of next! Olivia And The Treasure Hunt Its time for the annual town treasure hunt, which takes Olivia and her family all over town, by roller skate, scooter and bicycle performing silly stunts to collect clues about the location of the treasure.
Olobob Top This series follows a group of young creative creatures called the Olobobs. Tib, Lalloo and Bobble live in a big forest and have fun playing, exploring and solving everyday problems. OnePlusOne Watch on iView. One Plus One Redux In an intimate one-on-one setting Jane Hutcheon interviews celebrities, authors, sports heroes, actors and personalities from Australia and around the world.
Operation Ouch! Operation Ouch is back! With big stunts and experiments they'll explore the extraordinary ways medicine can fix us. It is incumbent upon them who are in authority to exercise moderation in all things.
Whatsoever passeth beyond the limits of moderation will cease to exert a beneficial influence. Consider for instance such things as liberty, civilization and the like. However much men of understanding may favourably regard them, they will, if carried to excess, exercise a pernicious influence upon men. If this point were to be expounded an elaborate explanation would be required which, it is feared, might become tedious. It is the ardent hope of this lowly one that God-- exalted be His glory--may grant all men that which is good.
For he who is endowed therewith is the possessor of all things. Turn ye away from all that is on earth and seek none else but Me. I am the Sun of Wisdom and the Ocean of Knowledge. I cheer the faint and revive the dead. I am the guiding Light that illumineth the way. I am the royal Falcon on the arm of the Almighty. I unfold the drooping wings of every broken bird and start it on its flight.
And likewise He saith: The heaven of true understanding shineth resplendent with the light of two luminaries: tolerance and righteousness. O my friend! Vast oceans lie enshrined within this brief saying. Blessed are they who appreciate its value, drink deep therefrom and grasp its meaning, and woe betide the heedless. At present the light of reconciliation is dimmed in most countries and its radiance extinguished while the fire of strife and disorder hath been kindled and is blazing fiercely.
Two great powers who regard themselves as the founders and leaders of civilization and the framers of constitutions have risen up against the followers of the Faith associated with Him Who conversed with God. It ill beseemeth the station of man to commit tyranny; rather it behoveth him to observe equity and be attired with the raiment of justice under all conditions. Beseech ye the One true God that He may, through the power of the hand of loving-kindness and spiritual education, purge and purify certain souls from the defilement of evil passions and corrupt desires, that they may arise and unloose their tongues for the sake of God, that perchance the evidences of injustice may be blotted out and the splendour of the light of justice may shed its radiance upon the whole world.
The people are ignorant, and they stand in need of those who will expound the truth. The Great Being saith: The man of consummate learning and the sage endowed with penetrating wisdom are the two eyes to the body of mankind. God willing, the earth shall never be deprived of these two greatest gifts. That which hath been set forth and will be revealed in the future is but a token of this Servant's ardent desire to dedicate Himself to the service of all the kindreds of the earth. In all circumstances one should seize upon every means which will promote security and tranquillity among the peoples of the world.
The Great Being saith: In this glorious Day whatever will purge you from corruption and will lead you towards peace and composure, is indeed the Straight Path. Please God, the peoples of the world may be led, as the result of the high endeavours exerted by their rulers and the wise and learned amongst men, to recognize their best interests.
How long will humanity persist in its waywardness?
How long will injustice continue? How long is chaos and confusion to reign amongst men? How long will discord agitate the face of society? This humble servant is filled with wonder, inasmuch as all men are endowed with the capacity to see and hear, yet we find them deprived of the privilege of using these faculties. This servant hath been prompted to pen these lines by virtue of the tender love he cherisheth for thee. The winds of despair are, alas, blowing from every direction, and the strife that divideth and afflicteth the human race is daily increasing. The signs of impending convulsions and chaos can now be discerned, inasmuch as the prevailing order appeareth to be lamentably defective.
I beseech God, exalted be His glory, that He may graciously awaken the peoples of the earth, may grant that the end of their conduct may be profitable unto them, and aid them to accomplish that which beseemeth their station. Were man to appreciate the greatness of his station and the loftiness of his destiny he would manifest naught save goodly character, pure deeds, and a seemly and praiseworthy conduct. If the learned and wise men of goodwill were to impart guidance unto the people, the whole earth would be regarded as one country. Verily this is the undoubted truth. This servant appealeth to every diligent and enterprising soul to exert his utmost endeavour and arise to rehabilitate the conditions in all regions and to quicken the dead with the living waters of wisdom and utterance, by virtue of the love he cherisheth for God, the One, the Peerless, the Almighty, the Beneficent.
No man of wisdom can demonstrate his knowledge save by means of words. This showeth the significance of the Word as is affirmed in all the Scriptures, whether of former times or more recently. For it is through its potency and animating spirit that the people of the world have attained so eminent a position. Moreover words and utterances should be both impressive and penetrating. However, no word will be infused with these two qualities unless it be uttered wholly for the sake of God and with due regard unto the exigencies of the occasion and the people. The Great Being saith: Human utterance is an essence which aspireth to exert its influence and needeth moderation.
As to its influence, this is conditional upon refinement which in turn is dependent upon hearts which are detached and pure. As to its moderation, this hath to be combined with tact and wisdom as prescribed in the Holy Scriptures and Tablets. Every word is endowed with a spirit, therefore the speaker or expounder should carefully deliver his words at the appropriate time and place, for the impression which each word maketh is clearly evident and perceptible.
The Great Being saith: One word may be likened unto fire, another unto light, and the influence which both exert is manifest in the world.
Therefore an enlightened man of wisdom should primarily speak with words as mild as milk, that the children of men may be nurtured and edified thereby and may attain the ultimate goal of human existence which is the station of true understanding and nobility. And likewise He saith: One word is like unto springtime causing the tender saplings of the rose-garden of knowledge to become verdant and flourishing, while another word is even as a deadly poison. It behoveth a prudent man of wisdom to speak with utmost leniency and forbearance so that the sweetness of his words may induce everyone to attain that which befitteth man's station.
O friend of mine! The Word of God is the king of words and its pervasive influence is incalculable. It hath ever dominated and will continue to dominate the realm of being. The Great Being saith: The Word is the master key for the whole world, inasmuch as through its potency the doors of the hearts of men, which in reality are the doors of heaven, are unlocked.
It is an ocean inexhaustible in riches, comprehending all things. Every thing which can be perceived is but an emanation therefrom. High, immeasurably high is this sublime station, in whose shadow moveth the essence of loftiness and splendour, wrapt in praise and adoration. Methinks people's sense of taste hath, alas, been sorely affected by the fever of negligence and folly, for they are found to be wholly unconscious and deprived of the sweetness of His utterance. How regrettable indeed that man should debar himself from the fruits of the tree of wisdom while his days and hours pass swiftly away.
Please God, the hand of divine power may safeguard all mankind and direct their steps towards the horizon of true understanding. I would like to add that thy second letter which had been sent from Jerusalem hath been received and that which thou hadst written and set forth therein was perused and read in His presence. He bade me write as follows:. We have heard thy voice and perceived the sighing and lamentation thou didst raise in thy longing and eagerness.
Praised be God! The sweet savours of love could be inhaled from every word thereof. Please God, this bounty may last for ever. The Servant-in-Attendance recited the verses thou hast composed. Thy name is often mentioned in the presence of this Wronged One and the glances of Our loving-kindness and compassion are directed towards thee. Great is the station of man. Great must also be his endeavours for the rehabilitation of the world and the well-being of nations. I beseech the One true God to graciously confirm thee in that which beseemeth man's station.
Be thou guided by wisdom under all conditions, inasmuch as persons who harbour evil motives have been and are still diligently engaged in intriguing. Gracious God! Unto that immeasurably exalted Being Who seeketh naught but to foster the spirit of love and fellowship amongst men, and to revive the world and ennoble its life, they have imputed such charges as the tongue and the pen are ashamed to recount.
We have remembered thee and make mention of thee now. We entreat Him--exalted is His glory--to protect thee with the hands of might and power and enable thee to recognize that which will serve thy best interests both in this world and in the next. No God is there besides Him, the Omnipotent, the Powerful.
God grant that this Wronged One may observe fidelity. He hath not forgotten nor will He ever forget thee. Thou hast mentioned thine intention to stay in Damascus until spring, then to proceed to Mosul, should the means be forthcoming. This lowly servant entreateth God--exalted is His glory--to provide such means as is deemed expedient, and to aid thee. He is Potent and Powerful. Although all the inhabitants of this region have been treated with the utmost kindness, yet no evidence of fellowship can be discerned from them.
Thou shouldst observe much tact and wisdom, for they seek at all times to cavil at and deny the Cause. May the One true God grant them equity. Concerning thine own affairs, if thou wouldst content thyself with whatever might come to pass it would be praiseworthy. To engage in some profession is highly commendable, for when occupied with work one is less likely to dwell on the unpleasant aspects of life. God willing thou mayest experience joy and radiance, gladness and exultation in any city or land where thou mayest happen to sojourn.
This lowly servant will never forget that distinguished and kind friend. He hath remembered and will continue to remember thee. The decree lieth with God, the Lord of all worlds. I fain would hope He may vouchsafe divine assistance and grant confirmation in that which is pleasing and acceptable unto Him.
Every word of thy poetry is indeed like unto a mirror in which the evidences of the devotion and love thou cherishest for God and His chosen ones are reflected. Well is it with thee who hast quaffed the choice wine of utterance and partaken of the soft flowing stream of true knowledge.
Happy is he who hath drunk his fill and attained unto Him and woe betide the heedless. Its perusal hath truly proved highly impressive, for it was indicative of both the light of reunion and the fire of separation. Far be it from us to despair at any time of the incalculable favours of God, for if it were His wish He could cause a mere atom to be transformed into a sun and a single drop into an ocean.
He unlocketh thousands of doors, while man is incapable of conceiving even a single one. So heedless is this servant that with words such as these he seeketh to vindicate the supreme power of God-- exalted be His glory. I implore pardon of God, the Most Great, for these assertions and affirm that this servant at all times recognizeth his grievous trespasses and misdeeds. He entreateth remission of his sins from the ocean of the forgiveness of his Lord, the Most Exalted, and beggeth for that which will make him wholly devoted to God and enable him to utter His praise, turn himself toward Him and to put his whole trust in Him.
Verily He is the Potent, the Forgiving, the Merciful. Praised be God, the Almighty, the All-Knowing. The driving imperative is to salvage centred, bounded and coherent identities—placed identities for placeless times. This may take the form of the resuscitated patriotism and jingoism that we are now seeing in a resurgent Little Englandism. Alternatively, as I have already suggested, it may take a more progressive form in the cultivation of local and regional identities or in the project to construct a continental European identity.
At the heart of this romantic aspiration is what Richard Sennett, in another context, calls the search for purity and purified identity. The enterprise involved is an attempt to build an image or identity that coheres, is unified, and filters out threats in social experience. Purification aims to secure both protection from, and positional superiority over, the external other. Anxiety and power feed off each other.
As William Connolly argues, When you remain within the established field of identity and difference, you become a bearer of strategies to protect identity through devaluation of the other; but if you transcend the field of identities through which the other is constituted, you lose the identity and standing needed to communicate with those you sought to inform. Identity and difference are bound together. It is impossible to reconstitute the relation to the second without confounding the experience of the first. Is it, then, possible to break this logic of identity? How do we begin to confront the challenge of postmodern geographies and the urgent question of cultural Translation?
It is in the experience of diaspora that we may begin to understand the way beyond empire. In the experience of migration, difference is confronted: boundaries are crossed; cultures are mingled; identities become blurred. The crossing of boundaries brings about a complexity of vision and also a sense of the permeability and contingency of cultures. There is, to take one example, a new cosmopolitanism in the field of literature. It is, rather, to emphasize the profound insularity of enterprise and heritage cultures and to question the relevance of their different strategies to re-enchant the nation.
Now it is a more complex thing, involving new elements. If, however, over the past decade or so, both of these cultural developments have been provoked and shaped by those forces, neither has been open to them. Not only British national identity has had to confront a crisis as new forms of multinational networking, based in part upon the new technologies for information processing, have created novel economic and cultural connections at and across sub-national regional and local and supra-national levels.
National identity and selfsufficiency have become vulnerable to the new supremacy of global information flows, and the power of increasingly multinational grids of investment, production and marketing. Although both notions led an active political and ideological life before the s, the decade saw them extensively reorganized as they were semantically recharged within the force-fields of national politics.
More specifically, it saw them interconnected as related elements of Thatcherite reconstruction. One cultural aspect of this process was the emphatic projection of new perspectives upon the national past and future, involving new ways of relating imaginatively to continuity, whilst admitting new principles of economic and cultural change. In this sense, heritage and enterprise form together a key mythic couplet for preserving hegemonic equilibrium and momentum during a period of major national reorientation. To see them as self-evidently in opposition on account of the different directions— backwards and forwards—of their visionary discourse, is to underestimate the powerful interarticulation of past, present and future in them both.
Their mutual supportiveness can be observed at a number of levels. These have been offered as compensatory in relation to the undertones of destabilization and fragmentation carried by the enterprise imperative, along with its official melodies of opportunity and progress. Yet it is immediately easy to see how the ideological project suggested here might in practice be hard to achieve. Especially so when we note the diversity and variety of heritage culture and the relative absence of those tight bureaucratic controls exerted, by contrast, over the official refashioning of enterprise.
But it is equally possible to imagine a heritage whose unintended effects would include encouraging people to call into question precisely those values towards which freemarket enterprise points. We explore such questions in more detail below. Of course, even within the operation of the two terms considered separately, a total coherence of meanings, a fixed signification, is impossible to deliver. In , this continued to disturb the unity of Cabinet policy and to trouble the response of Conservative supporters nationally.
These popular perceptions do not usually work with the categories of class, race and gender and are likely to be selective in their recognition of inequality and its causes. Nevertheless, such recognition may be sufficient to offer continued, if selective, resistance to ideas of a transcendent national unity. In what follows, we explore the two concepts separately. However, in a final section we return to a consideration of the links between them. And English Heritage can offer such enchanting surroundings—the sun setting over the lake at Kenwood, the boats passing on the Thames at Marble Hill and this year for the first time, the Grandeur of Audley End House.
English Heritage brochure, You will see how people lived a hundred years ago, and where they worked. You can eat what they ate, smell what they could smell and drink what they drank. You can see how their candles, their shoes, their woodwork and their printed paper were made. Of course, the most established institution of the British national heritage is the National Trust, which has exerted a managing influence on both physical and cultural manifestations of the notion since , though not without several shifts in the direction and scope of its custodial duties.
For example, Heritage: The British Review is an illustrated magazine of ardent, rightwing nationalism, designed primarily, perhaps for an expatriate readership, whilst Heritage Outlook is the periodical of the Civic Trust and English Heritage Monitor an annual publication of the English Tourist Board. The new terms of this popular, recreational engagement with the past have created a changed context for the traditional function of museums.
At the same time, they have been joined both by new and specialized kinds of civic collections and by a massive increase in private museums, mostly developed as part of the tourist economy and creating within the heritage idea strong cross-generic connections with fun-fair and theme park. Television and, to a lesser extent, sections of the magazine industry, have acted both as agencies of stimulation and of integration in this process.
But how coherent, across the proliferating usages and instances, are the meanings and values generated by the term? And how directly and effectively do these meanings and values relate to those dominant forces of economic and political conservatism within whose force-field most developments have been initiated and managed? As we suggested in our introductory essay in this volume, an intensified rhetoricization of heritage is one response to the perceived threat of weakened group identity in the changing contexts of Europe and of global finance.
It attempts to promote the dissolution, or at least the temporary forgetting, of radical differences and inequalities and to do so in the interests of celebrated unity. In this connection, it is worth noting that heritage appeals tend to differ from those of patriotism in so far as the latter require a sense of loyalty rather than of possession to be the primary focus of feeling and action, and they can therefore work more freely alongside a popular recognition and acceptance of established structures of difference.
Clearly, this offering cannot involve the kind of detailed examination of the changed conditions of ownership that might threaten the imaginative appeal of inheritance as continuity. Heritage pronouncements also vary in the extent to which it is primarily landscape, architecture, artefacts, or values which are being appealed to as common stock.
More often than not, a strategic indivisibility is seen to be at work, subsuming awkward differences within larger continuities. I think of a morning mist on the Tweed at Dryburgh where the magic of Turner and the romance of Scott both come fleetingly to life; of a celebration of the Eucharist in a quiet Norfolk Church with the mediaeval glass filtering the colours, and the early noise of the harvesting coming through the open door; or of standing at any time before the Wilton Diptych.
Each scene recalls aspects of an indivisible heritage, and is part of the fabric and expression of our civilisation. In the course of our discussion below, we note the manner in which, by being extended out beyond the splendid and the exalted to the humble, the ordinary and the working, the Heritage idea has broadened its ideological reach at the same time as it has also, perhaps, been modified in its focus and force by other, connecting and sometimes conflicting, discourses. In the heart of the country Although the idea of heritage is now used to describe and promote an increasing number of urban, industrial sites and exhibitions, an emphasis on the countryside, on the natural order and on rural life a naturalized order remains central to most heritage culture.
Moreover, the geographic distribution of such properties in the Midlands and the North, as well as the South, has helped to prevent that sense of regional division which might have been thought to follow from so clear a class emphasis. The properties and grounds also clearly offer unique opportunities for popular imaginative play on the pleasures of spaciousness, tranquillity, status and order, providing opportunities for visitors to experience briefly at least the first of these. However, the dominant influence on the growth of this aspect of contemporary heritage culture has been the idea of the folk-museum and the widespread interest in rural crafts and skills and in traditional materials.
Developments in this area have often been informed by a scholarly concern with the details of agricultural method and rural artisanry, though rarely has the social history of labour been introduced very far into the picture. Work and play Previously a term with a rather dated and fulsome ring to it, heritage has now emerged as a central enabling concept within national and regional redevelopment, related directly to the growth in tourism and leisure investment.
I can therefore fondly and proudly ascribe to her an earnest love of knowledge. Causes of the Republican defeat--Tariff and free trade--No confidence in the Democratic party. The odd proceedings in the purchase of his freedom after his escape from slavery; his movements in connection with the John Brown raid at Harper's Ferry and his subsequent flight across the ocean are romantic as anything which took place among the crags and the cliffs, the Roderick Dhus and Douglasses of the Lady of the Lake; while the pure life he has led and his spotless character are sweet by contrast Page 19 with the lives of mere politicians and time-serving statesmen. Human endeavour, for instance, is the very act of living ; and, life has no meaning when human endeavour is not valued. The Promised One Himself hath come down from heaven, seated upon the crimson cloud with the hosts of revelation on His right, and the angels of inspiration on His left, and the Decree hath been fulfilled at the behest of God, the Omnipotent, the Almighty.
Given this leisure-centredness, it may therefore seem at first paradoxical that one of the most significant new ingredients in the heritage mix is the inclusion of the industrial past and with it, inevitably, industrial working practices and routines. But perhaps the most extensive and celebrated site of this kind in Britain is the Ironbridge Gorge Museum complex, near Telford in Shropshire. There is little record of any trades-union activity. Conversely, the reclamation for heritage of the more recent industrial past may prove troublesome among the affected local community.
How do you make a museum of an experience like that? Up to a point I felt silenced by it and, in the absence of anything more relevant, felt drawn to identify with the tools, the noise and the smell. A museum like this with its professional-managerial assumptions provides a very partial framework for personal experience, and one which constantly threatens to compromise those visitors who want to sustain their own distinctive and opposed perspectives to the exploitation of waged work.
In both cases, the interaction between the terms of display and the gendered terms of visitor interpretation becomes of especial significance. The past becomes essentialized around costumed characters in selfcontained and entertaining narrative episodes. Heritage and the politics of pastness We have noted some of the key themes which have developed and become interrelated in representations of heritage.
They will have to speak to that much broader restructuring of identities, desires and social relationships to which we have earlier referred and within whose terms imaginative projections and apprehensions of the past form a powerful authenticating and positioning element. However, as we examine the emergence of the term as one predominantly organized from the Right, certain patterns emerge. In Britain in the s the term was principally motivated by, and designed to further, the principles of free-market Conservatism. The following sections of this chapter explore both the key characteristics of this concept of enterprise, and some instances of its manifestation in particular institutions and practices.
Policy initiatives across a variety of fields, from local government and education to industry, the arts, and broadcasting, as well as the launching of a number of vigorous advertising and publicity campaigns, have had the aim of creating and sustaining the values and cultural forms appropriate to the new age of private enterprise.
This militantly individualistic culture has been designed to replace the philosophy of collectivism and the practice of public provision, challenging the established consensus of the post-war welfare state, and opposing in theory at least almost all forms of public intervention, planning, ownership, or control.
Socialism, with its language of rights, entitlements, redistributionism, and publicly resourced welfare provision, has been regarded as the great enemy of individual responsibility and enterprise. Socialism and social democracy are seen by the New Right as the forces sapping the will and diminishing the vigour of the capitalist enterprise culture. By prices and income policies, by high taxation, by nationalisation, by central planning?
But then it came. The face began to smile, the spirits began to lift, the pride returned. In the New Right vision of enterprise culture, enterprise is the enemy of regulation, red tape and bureaucracy, of stagnation, welfarism, and elitism. There is, it is argued, equality of opportunity if not of outcome on the ladders to success. The enterprising spirit is believed to be at odds with the collectivist philosophy; it is competitive, flexible, innovative, bold, confident and risk-taking.
Critics of this vision argue that it favours the aggressive and marginalizes the weak, advances self-interest and selfishness, encourages increased differentials of wealth and poverty and the continuing exploitation of labour, replaces planning with anarchy, ignores the tendency to monopoly and hides the concentrations of power and ownership in capitalist societies. Like the blue streak in the Department of Trade and Industry television advertisement, which bursts magically through boardrooms and offices, signifying the inspiration of radical right solutions, the spirit of enterprise as represented by its advocates removes all blockages.
It is dynamic, problem-solving, forward-looking. What is interesting about some of these characteristics is that they are not necessarily opposed to collectivist and socialist philosophies. Some of the same arguments, principles, and terms, in particular the emphasis on flexibility, initiative, and innovation, are present in the case for restructuring the socialist economy.
The British Conservative variant, with its emphasis on removing powers from local Labour authorities in particular, does not include in any significant way this devolutionist impulse. The logics and imperative of pro-capitalist enterprise culture unfold largely untouched by principles of democracy and local accountability. In the four examples which follow, these imperatives are traced, both through the official discourse and practices of state institutions, and as circulated, and sometimes challenged, in the spheres of advertising and of popular fiction.
The militant spirit of enterprise, unlocked through the provision of various material bases, can be traced in its major manifestations across these two key sites. The MSC has been one of the most significant institutions of the Thatcher years. It has managed and through the provision of various work-related training schemes substantially reduced the numbers of people officially registered as unemployed.
It had, for its proponents, the double advantage of removing numbers from the unemployment register and advancing both the values of entrepreneurship and self-reliance and the practice of self-employment. There is no doubt that real shifts in employment practices have occurred in the s. And although the rate of business bankruptcies has significantly increased, it is still the case that many people have chosen, or been pressured into, self-employment.
In , 7. This element of risk, the Stock Market crash of and the failure-rate figures for the scheme, have cast some doubt on its effectiveness as a means of demonstrating the values of the free market. Figures from one study undertaken for the MSC indicate that 66 per cent of these small companies were still trading eighteen months after starting on the scheme, and that 56 per cent were still in business three years after start-up; these are, respectively, failure rates of 34 per cent and 44 per cent.
For the proponents of the scheme, its success is marked not just by the numbers of successful small businesses created, but equally by the contribution it makes to establishing a set of values supportive of private enterprise. One polytechnic argued that: enterprising people are recognised by their vision and drive, their creativity and motivation to achieve, in both their personal and professional development, and went on to outline the aims of the scheme thus: Characteristics of enterprise which the Polytechnic seeks to support are the ability to take the initiative, make decisions, manage resources, influence others, and exhibit drive and determination.
As LEAs budgets have been reducing, the new monies for this project, designed to bring the world of school and the world of work closer together, have been routed into schools, not through the traditional channels of the LEA and the Department of Education and Science, but through the MSC. The very extensiveness of the scheme has perhaps toned down its more ideologically militant and specific aspects. A rather more focused aim emerges in the wording of an initiative aimed at the world of business and private enterprise.
The Poll Tax is based on the principle that, with a few exceptions for the very poor, all adults living in a city or district pay an equal, fixed sum to cover the costs of locally provided services.
The distinctive feature of the new tax is that it is not related to socially situated income and ability to pay, but is a flat-rate charge, fixed at the same level for all individuals. Thus it departs radically from the modestly redistributionist principles of the post-war welfare state, which assumed that the rich as individuals should contribute rather more than the poor, or those on average or low wages, to the cost of public services.
A possible connection with the ability to vote in local and national elections has also been noted by critics of the new system. Equality of taxation where there is no equality of income is viewed by many as a deeply unjust policy. And it is especially remarkable in a period marked by increasing income differentials: between and the top 10 per cent saw their earnings rise by In a radically different vision from that suggested by the ideals of social security and collective provison, the enterprise culture envisages individuals competing against each other for individual benefits, with the state interfering as little as possible as some win and some lose.
This culture requires that poor and middle-income groups pay the full cost of the services they need while the rich forge ahead, increasing personal not social wealth. As Nicholas Ridley, the minister then responsible for Local Government and for introducing the new law, put it: in terms of local authority services, people should be paying for what they get. It has nothing to do with how rich you are. The emphasis is thus on individuals paying for what they individually consume.
As one member of Parliament argued in the debate about the new legislation: If the dustman uses the same services as the millionaire—he probably uses them more—it is fair that both should contribute towards paying for those services. The fundamental issue of taxation as a redistributionist measure, and of whether or not this is a fair and just measure, will inevitably be the subject of much sharper public debate in the s. A key concept of the s has been that the enterprising individual will not require the safety net of public provision, since all services can be acquired in the market, on market terms.
It may be also worth noting, in terms of the tensions within Conservative thinking, that this emphasis on individual responsibility and liability to pay may cut across the more traditional Conservative values of family life. They are no longer covered by the family rates bill, and this could result in pressure on some to move out of the family home. The arts and broadcasting Of course, for the advocates of a free-enterprise culture, the freedom of the market is believed to be the foundation stone of all other significant freedoms. While British culture in the s has been characterized by the continued rumbling of these disputes, it should be noted that a decade of government advancing the principles of the free market has not yet brought about the abolition of public funding for the arts, or the ending of some measure of public regulation of broadcasting.
However, the ways in which things are described, understood and, even more significantly, assumed, has changed in some significant respects since the days of cross-party consensus on social and cultural welfare. The proliferation of studies on the economic case for the arts would be a case in point. In the cultural field, policy initiatives from the Right have often been designed to destabilize or erode public provision and to replace it, where possible, with private provision.
Organizations on the receiving end of these policy changes have now had some experience on which to base judgements about the relative enabling and censoring functions of the public and private sectors. As enterprise ideology has sought to secure the definition of freedom as the freedom to buy, to make choices in the market-place, so the traditional conservative view that the arts enshrine non-material and enduring human values has rather gone by the board. A sterner, price mechanism-oriented philosophy has sought to replace it.
Increased choice is offered not through a system of redistributive taxation deployed to provide an improved public service, but through acts of choice in the market-place, made by those who can afford the price. It is this latter philosophy which explains the enthusiasm in the White Paper on Broadcasting for the introduction of cable and satellite subscription services, and the proposal that the BBC should move towards subscription and away from its present method of funding: the universal licence fee.
Pay-per-view is another and more obvious example of the attempt to establish price mechanisms in broadcasting, analagous to the introduction of meters in charging for water consumption. Without such price mechanisms, it is argued that the free market cannot work, and there is no incentive to produce goods in cheap and efficient ways.
The difficulty here, for government, concerns the degree of openness with which it is possible to state that public provision must first be dismantled for free-market provision to flourish. What we have argued to be the positive values and the significant social and cultural advances brought about through the post-war consensus on social regulation and high quality public provision, may prove especially resistant to challenge and eradication in the sphere of broadcasting.
They exemplify the ideas and values informing the new routine practices of various institutions. This fourth cluster of examples is designed to explore, briefly, some of the ways in which enterprise culture is produced, reflected, and sometimes criticized in visual and imaginative texts. Striking, though of uncertain effect, within this realm is the iconography produced in television and print advertising.
These commercials typically involve young people, male and female, black and white, directly addressing the camera about the good experiences that they have had on the YTS. Its critics have argued, on the basis of a study of the placement of the commercials within typical high-income viewing rather than typical lowincome viewing slots, that the true purpose of the campaign was party political propaganda, not information for the unemployed.
Advertisements and promotional literature addressed at employers, rather than at unemployed, have understandably a very different tone from the YTS advertisements mentioned above. But its appearance on television, with millions of viewers, may have had unintended adverse consequences in its representation of the workforce as a block of inert, unfeeling and stubborn physical matter. Other promotional print materials in the campaign, showing only halfhumanoid figures struggling to chisel themselves out of blocks of granite in an eerie and empty desert plain, may also have unhappy and discomforting connotations for both employed and unemployed people.
The political dimension of promotional imagery perhaps emerges most clearly in some of the literature and commercials produced by the DTI. It is, of course, no accident that the blue streak of enterprise in the TV commercial and on the cover of DTI pamphlets asserts the true blue colour of the Conservative Party.
Examples here would include the network drama series produced by Euston Films for Thames Television, Capital City , which draws on the lives, loves and conflicts of the young and rich, working in the heady and dynamic world of the financial institutions in the City of London. This film is structured around a series of interviews with individuals and families, ranging in tone from quiet desperation to militant anger.
Here, Grigsby explores the other side of enterprise—lives lived in the shadow; subordinated and bereft in the wake of the onward march of free enterprise economics. And a nice, though ultimately evasive, sense of irony underpins the sketch of the awkward encounter between ivory tower academicism and the practical imperatives of manufacturing. Entrepreneurial activity, in its positive and negative aspects, is explored rather more sharply in Closing.
The four women who are at its centre make very different moves down the pathways of enterprise culture. The novel ends, bleakly, with the most free-market oriented of the women leaving Britain to sell unsafe milk to African mothers and their children on behalf of an American corporation. There is little questioning here of who wins or of who loses in the game of enterprise.
This consensus was effectively and radically challenged by the three successive Conservative Governments of the s—although it had become apparent by the end of the decade that some of the key propositions of that consensus, for example the need for a wellresourced National Health Service, remained popular and intact. Ownership and independence cease to be the privileges of a few and become the birthright of all. In this way One Nation is finally reached—not by a single people being conscripted into an organised socialist programme but by millions of people building their own lives in their own way.
And while political manifestoes inevitably express a series of rhetorical moves, it is important not to underestimate the real changes that took place in British society and culture in the course of the decade: by almost two-thirds of households were owner-occupied, and individual share-ownership had increased from 7 per cent of the population in to nearly 20 per cent in There are, however, a number of outstanding problems confronting such a bid.
The first concerns the extent to which wider share-ownership can be taken to represent an understanding of, and assent to, economic principles, as well as the rather misleading way in which such percentage figures hide the continuing and massive concentrations of share-ownership in relatively few hands.
Such a growth is documented by the increasing quantity of statistics on poverty, deprivation, and deteriorating public services and it is a key factor behind the widespread perception of Britain as an unacceptably divided nation. As our discussion above has shown, if the spirit of enterprise offers itself as the motor of change, innovation, and development, the spirit of heritage offers the reassurance of continuity with a shared past.
However, the very popularizing of this past as an element within a growing and almost always commodified leisure culture, has necessitated its representation in more lively and engaging relationships with popular pleasures, aspirations and interests in the present. And if these questions begin to connect with issues of differential power and privilege in the present, and outside the turnstiles of the historical-leisure sites, a more democratic history may gradually and indirectly be in the making. In parallel to this social and cultural change is the emergence in public and political discourse of the confident and critical voices of second generation members of British Afro-Caribbean and Asian communities.
This new black generation has challenged the racist dimension of the language of heritage, and the many complacencies of predominantly white histories, making it increasingly difficult to hide the history of slavery and of international pillage behind a celebration of European civilization and British empire.
Since there is as yet little research on visitor interpretations and assessments at British heritage sites however, it is difficult to trace and substantiate the interconnections made between the discourses of school and television, guidebook and spectacle as they inform specific readings.
The contribution that a commodified heritage culture had made to the Thatcherite programme is, to a considerable extent, an economic one. But its ideological contribution is troubling and contradictory for the radical Right. In their anti-egalitarian and anti-welfarist variants the emphasis is upon individual success and the personal and private accumulation of wealth. The inevitable concomitant of this, its critics argue, is public squalor and high levels of poverty and deprivation.
In Britain in the s, the term has principally and officially been mobilized in defence of free-market values. But capitalism has undergone many changes since its Victorian variants. For some thirty years it has incorporated, if only in part, the settlement of , with its vision of social justice, social security and full employment. The subsequent restructuring of the capitalist economy, world-wide and in Britain, has challenged this settlement. As we approach the end of the century, in this still young era of universal suffrage, the same great question forces itself upon capitalists and socialists, east and west, north and south.
What practical measures must be adopted to ensure planetary survival and a decent standard of living for all? And what are the precise kinds of markets and public policies able to produce and implement these measures? In global terms, we are not so far from the question which Chateaubriand asked of Europe in A society in which individuals may possess incomes of two millions while others are reduced to living in hovels on heaps of decayed matter alive with worms…can such a society remain stationary on such foundations in the midst of the advance of ideas?
But from our critical analysis of their development as two nodal points of dominant culture in eighties Britain, we find enough in each, despite present inflections, to sustain resistance to exclusively free-market solutions and to connect with alternative visions of society: more equal, more generous and more humane. A hundred years ago it was usual to find East London represented as the racial other, a place of darkness and barbarism.
Its unknowability, in common with the oriental East, was projected through a highly fantasized and eroticized system of images. The degenerate inhabitants of the East, it seemed, were themselves carriers of contagion—disease, anarchy, wantonness—and always on the point of engulfing the civilization of the West. In the aftermath of this crisis, the traffic in missionaries and explorers from West to East increased precipitously, while in popular fiction the special aptitudes of the sleuth were now required to decode the new and illegible urban environment. Gradually, through patient expertise, the East came to be known.
It was found not to contain, after all, an undifferentiated mass of the dissolute. Vice was specific, and so, on the terrain of the East End itself, were invented the categories of the hooligan, the incorrigible loafer, the destitute alien and so on. Special agencies sprang up to deal with each of these in turn. In this way, dependent on more complex systems of power than hitherto, came light and democracy to the East, just as it did to more distant lands. The fear now, of course, is precisely reversed. People who consciously possess an unassailable identity as East Enders are fearful that their civilization is being overrun by the new hooligans of the eighties—lager louts and yuppies—spilling over from their traditional habitats of the City and the West.
East Enders, who have spent a lifetime confronting, bribing, outwitting, circumventing or simply ignoring the various local agencies of the state, now believe they face an unprecedented catastrophe. The physical environment of the old communities, which gave material form to the lived cultures of East London, have been razed to the ground. Colossal movements of capital have created, as if from nothing, what is in effect a vast bright new city which can only appear alien to those who had formerly lived in what were once the dark corners of the metropolis. This reversal, then, of perceptions—who is invading whom—is not entirely symmetrical for, as we would expect, the disposition of power was, and is, considerably more concentrated in the West.
But nor is the situation today entirely new. A constant dynamic reproduced for at least the past century in the culture of East London has been the perception that the old ways are in decay, on the cusp of total elimination. These perceptions have been accurate enough, for land speculation, immigration, too much or too little capital and war have all been decisive in destabilizing and reforming local cultural relations. Political intervention, too, has been critical, each phase of state development producing the impetus for politicians to attempt yet another mission to civilize the population of East London.
At the turn of the century Beveridge, Attlee and the rest learned all they knew in what they saw as the social laboratory of the East End.
With the accumulation of human misery so intense and the circulation of capital and labour in the free market so palpably blocked, a new collectivism was devised in order to give the hidden hand a jolt. The young idealists dreamt that one day the East End would be in the van of a new collectivist civilization.
This of course was not to be. In the desolation of East London the collectivist dream transmogrified into a new parasitism, held in place by the dead hand of Tammany politics. Bulldoze away the collectivist past and create in microcosm the Thatcherite future. This time round, though, high-mindedness and philanthropy have been jettisoned and the free market reinvented.
But it is clear that much of this—its visionary quality most obviously —trades on images as much as it does on more tangible commodities. In this, as well, the Thatcherites have the greater resources of power. By and large they have endeavoured to construct not only an entire new Docklands development, but to deploy a very particular idea of what, now, the East End is. Much of this, again as we might expect, is pretty spurious, while some is simply mendacious. On the other hand, contending images of the East End, drawing from a long repertoire of oral tradition, custom and knowable communities are certainly mythic, in the way that many oppressed cultures forge epic and imagined histories out of the grind of their subordination.