enter site On 6th November, , Churchill made a visit to Moscow. Stalin smiled and said maybe the intelligence services had failed to tell him about the operation. Cameron was carrying out experiments into sensory deprivation and memory as early as In he went to Canada and established the psychiatry department at Montreal's McGill University and became director of the newly-created Allan Memorial Institute that was funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.
At the same time he also did work for the OSS. It is almost certain that the US intelligence services were providing at least some of the money for his research during the war. Donald Ewen Cameron believed that after inducing complete amnesia in a patient, he could then selectively recover their memory in such a way as to change their behaviour unrecognisably. Karl Haushofer was then called in but even though they had been friends for twenty years, Hess once again failed to remember him. I am terribly sorry. Hess did not recognise other Nazi leaders.
Joachim von Ribbentrop responded by suggesting that Hess was not really Hess. The Hess we have here? Rees, The Case of Rudolf Hess , page However, Major Douglas M. Kelley , the American psychiatrist who was responsible for Hess during the trials, stated that he did have periods when he did remember his past. This included a detailed account of his flight to Scotland. Hess told Kelley that he had arrived without the knowledge of Hitler.
Robert Ley and Hermann Goering both committed suicide during the trial. His property, valued at around 45 million, and his numerous companies were also restored to him. During the Second World War Flick became extremely wealthy by using 48, slave labourers from SS concentration camps in his various industrial enterprises. It is estimated that 80 per cent of these workers died as a result of the way they were treated during the war.
His property was restored to him and like Krupp became one of the richest men in Germany. The West German newspaper Bild reported that Hess was going to be released on his 93rd birthday on 26th April BBC Newsnight , 28th February Gorbachev told Margaret Thatcher that he would expose the British hypocrisy by withdrawing the Soviet guards from Spandau Prison.
Rudolf Hess was still in Spandau Prison when he was found dead on 17th August, Officially he committed suicide but grave doubts have been raised about the possibility of a 93 man in his state of health being able to hang himself with an electrical extension cord without help from someone else.
There is bloodshed, Herr Chamberlain! There are dead! Innocent people have died. The responsibility for this, however, live with England, which talks of peace and fans the flames of war. England that has pointblank refused all the Fuhrer's proposals for peace throughout the years. She only refused these proposals, but before and after the Munich agreement threatened Germany by arming Czechoslovakia.
As the Fuhrer extinguished this blaze, England incited Poland to refuse the Fuhrer's peace proposals and to make her appearance as the new threat to Germany from the east. The luncheon at Chequers as guest of the Prime Minister on Sunday noon was the accolade of the trip. I sat at the right hand of Mr. Churchill, in a room filled with about two dozen diners, among them Harry Hopkins and Averell Harriman, who were in England on a lend-lease mission After the meal, the Prime Minister invited me to take a walk with him in the garden.
Churchill and his policies. Hess was, of course, safely stowed away in a British prison. But if he had had anything fresh and authoritative to say on Hitler's behalf about a separate peace, his imprisonment would not have silenced him.
But I was under the impression that the allurements of peace had been recently underlined by Rudolf Hess, and that Mr. Churchill was impatient with the United States, lend-lease and Iceland not-withstanding. I did not have the impression that he meant me to convey what he was saying to Washington. They would be message-bearers, not I. Rudolf Hess, once number three in the Nazi Party hierarchy, had, in , made his quixotic solo flight to Britain to try to persuade Churchill to make a separate peace with Germany.
Hess had never gotten near the Prime Minister, and for his pains had been locked up as a war prisoner. Carter urged the President to ask the British to allow Hanfstaengl to fly to England and meet with Hess, whom Putzi knew from the old days, in order to extract more recent intelligence from inside Hitler's realm. FDR vetoed the scheme.
The British, he explained, were not going to let anyone question the possibly insane Nazi, who had recently hurled himself head-first down a flight of stairs. Hess was an active supporter of the preparations for war. His signature established military service. He expressed a desire for peace and advocated international economic cooperation. But none knew better than Hess how determined Hitler was to realize his ambitions, how fanatical and violent a man he was. With him in his flight to England, Hess carried certain peace proposals which he alleged Hitler was prepared to accept.
It is significant to note that this flight took place only ten days after the date on which Hitler fixed, 22 June , as the time for attacking the Soviet Union. That Hess acts in an abnormal manner, suffers from the loss of memory, and has mentally deteriorated during the Trial, may be true. But there is nothing to show that he does not realize the nature of the charges against him, or is incapable of defending himself.
There is no suggestion that Hess was not completely sane when the acts charged against him were committed. Defendant Rudolf Hess, the court sentences you to imprisonment for life.
Dulles first swore Dr Cameron to secrecy, and then told him an astounding story. He had reason to believe that the man Dr Cameron was to examine was not Rudolf Hess but an impostor; that the real Deputy Fuhrer had been secretly executed on Churchill's orders. Dulles had explained that Dr Cameron could prove the point by a simple physical examination of the man's torso. If he was the genuine Hess, there should be scar tissue over his left lung, a legacy from the day the young Hess had been wounded in the First World War.
Dr Cameron had agreed to try to examine the prisoner. He is nearly 70 now - a dark, brooding, badger-faced man living in near-total oblivion in the enormous stone pile that is Spandau prison. At a time when German armies, already masters of Europe and most of North Africa, stood poised for a thrust into Russia, Hess brought an offer of peace. Hitler, he said, would guarantee the integrity of the British Empire if England would recognize Germany's dominance in Europe.
Drawing for the first time on all the old and new information about Hess's strange, ill-fated mission, Journalist-Historian James Leaser The Red Fort, The Plague and the Fire has produced an absorbing footnote to history. Painstakingly the author follows Hess through every stage of his secret preparation.
As an ex-World War I pilot and the No. Aides surreptitiously collected weather charts. Though Leaser's attempt to weld such details into a tale of step-by-step suspense is not entirely successful, his account has some touching vignettes of Hess—playing with his four-year-old son for the last time; standing uncertainly in the door of his wife's room on the day of the flight, unable to confide his secret, but wearing, as a covert gesture of affectionate farewell, a blue shirt that she had given him and that he hated.
Ironically, one of the most dramatic chapters concerns not Hess but his faithful aide Major Karlheinz Pintsch. Hitler invited him to lunch, had him arrested after the dessert. His plan was reasonable enough. Hitler did want peace with England. Earlier efforts to draw Churchill into negotiations had failed.
When it did fail, he followed the advice Hess left him in a parting letter and declared that Hess was the victim of "hallucinations. What bothered him was the Churchill might use the incident to pretend to Germany's allies that Hitler was extending a peace feeler. At the time it appeared to me that Bormann's ambition had driven Hess to this desperate act. Hess, also highly ambitious, could plainly see himself being excluded from access to and influence over Hitler.
The circle of English individuals whom I have known very well for years, and whose utilisation on behalf of a GermanEnglish understanding in the years from to i was the core of my activity in England, comprises the following groups and persons:. A leading group of younger Conservatives many of them Scotsmen. Close ties link this circle with the Court. The younger brother of the Duke of Hamilton is closely related to the present Queen through his wife; the mother-in-law of the Duke of Hamilton, the Duchess of Northumberland, is the Mistress of the Robes; her brother-in-law, Lord Eustace Percy, was several times a member of the Cabinet and is still today an influential member of the Conservative Party especially close to former Prime Minister Baldwin.
There are close connections between this circle and important groups of the older Conservatives, as for example the Stanley family Lord Derby, Oliver Stanley and Astor the last is owner of The Times. I have known almost all of the persons mentioned for years and from close personal contact. The present Under Secretary of State of the Foreign Office, Butler, also belongs here; in spite of many of his public utterances he is not a follower of Churchill or Eden. Numerous connections lead from most of those named to Lord Halifax, to whom I likewise had personal access. A group of the 'Ministerialdirektoren' in the Foreign Office.
There was hardly one of those named who was not at least occasionally in favour of a German-English understanding. Although most of them in finally considered that war was inevitable, it was nevertheless reasonable to think of these persons if one thought the moment had come for investigating the possibility of an inclination to make peace.
It seemed to me that the following could be considered for this:. Personal contact with Lothian, Hoare, or O'Malley, all three of whom were accessible in neutral countries. Contact by letter with one of my friends in England. For this purpose the Duke of Hamilton was considered in the first place, since my connection with him was so firm and personal that I could suppose he would understand a letter addressed to him even if it were formulated in very veiled language. Reich Minister Hess decided in favour of the second possibility; I wrote a letter to the Duke of Hamilton at the end of September and its despatch to Lisbon was arranged by the Deputy Fuehrer.
I did not learn whether the letter reached the addressee. The possibilities of its being lost en route from Lisbon to England are not small, after all. Hess recalls his stay in England fairly completely, and remembers clearly his first suicidal attempt. He was very depressed at the time, and planned to kill himself because he felt that he had failed in his mission and also because he felt at times that he was going insane. He recalled his head-first dive into the stairway from the second storey and states that he jumped with such force that he turned over once in the air and struck the railing at the foot of the stairs, landing on his leg, which was broken.
His attitude during this interview was co-operative, but he maintained an aloofness which has been characteristic of him since his arrival in prison. He refused to take any type of medicine, and when it was pointed out that his weight was definitely under normal, he stated that there was no need to gain weight at the trial since at its conclusion he would be free to live at home with his family.
There in pleasant surroundings he would undoubtedly regain his weight. Of course, if they executed him, it made little difference whether he was fat or thin. Consequently he would not take vitamins or any other medication. In this interview he was more friendly than at any time before or since.
He was deeply appreciative of any comment upon his skill as an actor and in general was extremely happy that he had been so successful. The reaction of his fellow prisoners was not so enthusiastic. Goering was amazed and upset, and while he enjoyed the frustration of the Court, demonstrated considerable resentment that he had been so completely fooled. Von Schirach felt that such behaviour was not the action of a normal man, and while he enjoyed Hess's jest upon the world, felt that it was not a gesture expected of a good German whose position was as important as that of Hess.
Ribbentrop, upon learning the news, was dumbfounded, and was hardly able to speak when told Hess's statement, and merely kept repeating: 'Hess, you mean Hess? He said that? I looked at him. I talked to him. Obviously he did not know me. It is just not possible. Nobody could fool me like that.
Streicher's comment, as usual, was direct and blunt: "If you ask me, I think Hess's behaviour was a shame. It reflects on the dignity of the German people. Von Ribbentrop arrives in Rome unexpectedly. He is discouraged and nervous. He wants to confer with the Duce and me for various reasons, but there is only one real reason: he wants to inform us about the Hess affair The official version is that Hess, sick in body and mind, was a victim of his pacifist hallucinations, and went to England in the hope of facilitating the beginning of peace negotiations.
Hence, he is not a traitor; hence he will not talk; hence, whatever else is said or printed in his name, is false. Ribbentrop's conversation is a beautiful feat of patching things up. The Germans want to cover themselves before Hess speaks and reveals things that might make a great impression in Italy. Mussolini comforted von Ribbentrop, but afterwards told me that he considers the Hess affair a tremendous blow to the Nazi regime.
He added that he was glad of it, because this will have the effect of bringing down German stock, even with the Italians. I have been sitting here for literally several hours, wondering what I can write to you about. But I get no further; and that I regret to say is for a very special reason. Since sooner or later, you will notice it or find out about it, I may as well tell you: I have completely lost my memory. The reason for it I do not know. The doctor gave me a lengthy explanation, but I have meanwhile forgotten what it was. He Hess knew and was capable of understanding Hitler's inner mind, his hatred of Soviet Russia, his lust to destroy Bolshevism, his admiration for Britain and earnest wish to be friends with the British Empire, his contempt for most other countries.
No one knew Hitler better or saw him more often in his unguarded moments. With the coming of actual war there was a change. Hitler's meal-time company grew perforce. Generals, admirals, diplomats, high functionaries, were admitted from time to time to this select circle of arbitrary power. The Deputy Fuehrer found himself in eclipse.
What were party demonstrations now? This was a time for deeds, not for antics Here, he felt, are all these generals and others who must be admitted to the Fuehrer's intimacy, and crowd his table. They have their parts to play. But I, Rudolf, by a deed of superb devotion will surpass them all and bring to my Fuehrer a greater treasure and easement than all of them put together.
I will go and make peace with Britain. My life is nothing. How glad I am to have a life to cast away for such a hope! Hess's idea of the European scene was that England had been wrested from her true interests and policy of friendship with Germany, and above all from alliance against Bolshevism, by the warmongers, of whom Churchill was the superficial manifestation.
If only he, Rudolf, could get at the heart of Britain and make its King believe how Hitler felt towards it, the malign forces that now ruled in this ill-starred island and had brought so many needless miseries upon it would be swept away But to whom should he turn? There was the Duke of Hamilton, who was known to the son of his political adviser, Haushofer.
He knew also that the Duke of Hamilton was Lord Steward. A personage like that would probably be dining every night with the King and have his private ear. Here was a channel of direct access. On May 10 came the amazing news of Rudolph Hess's sudden landing by parachute on the Duke of Hamilton's estate in Scotland.
This happened on a Saturday evening, and Churchill was in Dytchley. He was, in fact, watching a Marx Brothers movie - at least, that was the story as Hopkins was told it. The Duke of Hamilton telephoned from Scotland. Churchill wouldn't leave the movie ; he told a secretary to inform His Grace that the Prime Minister was otherwise engaged. But the Duke insisted that this was an urgent matter of Cabinet importance. Bracken returned to announce that Rudolph Hess had arrived in Britain.
Churchill snorted. Subsequently Ivone Kirkpatrick was dispatched to the Hamilton place to identify Hess. Kirkpatrick had been in the British Embassy in Berlin for years before the war and therefore knew Hess well and disliked him cordially. When he verified the identification, curt announcement was made and then the British Government covered the whole affair with a ii thick pall of secrecy. Practically everybody in the world who could read a newspaper or listen to a radio was in a fever of anxiety to know what was really behind this strange story. There was no limit to the rumors and speculations.
Rudolf Hess was Adolf Hitler's Deputy Führer until, in , he flew to Scotland, ostensibly to negotiate peace between Germany and Britain. Captured by the. DESMOND ZWAR is a journalist and author, and has written eighteen non-fiction books. He was the ghost-writer of Burton C. Andrus's The Infamous of.
Like everyone else, I was consumed with curiosity, but I knew I was not supposed to ask questions around the White House that were not directly connected with the performance of my own duties. Suddenly, in the midst of a conversation about something else, Roosevelt turned to Welles and said, "Sumner, you must have met Hess when you were in Europe last year. I was excited for I thought that now I was going to hear the inexplicable explained. Welles gave a thoughtful description of his impressions of Hess - fanatical, mystical devotion to his Fuehrer, apparently brutish stupidity, etc.
Roosevelt was silent for a moment, then: "I wonder what is really behind this story? So all I learned was that the President was asking precisely the same question that was being asked at thousands if not millions of other American supper tables. I looked towards the dock. In two rows often they sat: Goring, reduced to wearing a plain, ill-fitting grey uniform - no medals now - alert and attentive, vigorously nodding his head in agreement or shaking it in denial; Hess, with his pale pinched face; von Ribbentrop, always busy writing notes; Keitel and Jodi, the soldiers, staring silently and sullenly ahead; Schacht, the businessman, whose relationship with the Nazis had been more turbulent, and who had distaste etched into his face at having to sit in public with such unpleasant people; von Papen and von Neurath, politicians both but still the diplomats, polished and immaculate.
These all stood out. But how unimpressive were Seyss-Inquart, who had betrayed Austria and ruled occupied Holland; Rosenberg and Fritsche, the propagandists; and von Schirach, formerly a fanatical and dangerous young zealot, but now a visibly broken man. For a time, the whole free world had quaked before these men. Ultimately, however, they had brought not glory, but ruin and misery, to their own land and its people.
We had lived in their shadow for a decade, but now history was free to deliver a final verdict upon them. When the court adjourned for a quarter of an hour, I saw the Nazi leaders arguing heatedly among themselves about the evidence they had heard: evidence which had been gathered from every corner of Europe, from the Chancelleries and concentration camps, from the occupied countries and from Germany itself, of how the Nazis plunged the world into war, led Germany to its undoing and brought themselves, at last, into the dock in that Court House in Nuremberg.
During this meeting Stalin again emphasized the need for the greatest possible number of jeeps and also for American three-ton trucks. He said that the war depended on the gasoline engine - that the country with the biggest output in engines would be the ultimate victor. He also talked again about postwar aims and politics in general.
Beaverbrook notes that at one point in the meeting Stalin "sent for tea and food. This was the first time food had been produced at our conferences. It was obviously the result of his pleased excitement. In Harriman's notes is the following: "Stalin asked about Hess and seemed much interested in Beaverbrook's amusing description of his talk with Hess and his size-up of the situation. Stalin indicated that he thought Hess had gone not at the request of Hitler but with the knowledge of Hitler, to which.
Beaverbrook agreed. The net of Beaverbrook's statement was that Hess had come thinking that with a small group of British aristocrats a counter-Churchill government could be set up to make peace with Germany which would be welcomed by the majority of the British. Germany with British aid would then attack Russia. Stalin relished the amusing and detailed comments by Beaverbrook who was in his best form as a raconteur. In his notes on this part of the conversation, Beaverbrook wrote that Stalin said the German Ambassador who was still in Moscow at the time of the Hess flight had told him that Hess was crazy-but Beaverbrook expressed the view that Hess was not.
Harriman expressed to Stalin the hope that he would feel free to cable President Roosevelt directly on any matters that he considered of importance. But his air mission was a failure from the start. When he heard about the unexpected visitor from Germany, then-British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who at the time was giving a dinner party at his weekend house near Oxford, was not even willing to postpone a planned film screening, saying: "Well, Hess or no Hess, I'm going to see the Marx Brothers. Hess was taken into custody.
Klaus Wiegrefe. Related Topics. Discuss this issue with other readers! Show all comments Page 1. He flew from the end of one country to the end of another — a great achievement at that time. Perhaps Hess was the only Nazi who did not lost his mind because the flight indicates that he knew Germany could not win the war. It's [ It's a pity that he was not allowed to give interviews in Spandau. It should not forgotten that half and month later Germany invaded Soviet Union.
I think he knew it.
After the war, Albert Speer discussed the rationale for the flight with Hess, who told him that "the idea had been inspired in him in a dream by supernatural forces. Retrieved 4 September The unlikely envoy's mission quickly took a turn for the worse. Ingenuity Ingenuity Festival. Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union began only weeks after Hess's parachute jump. News Corp Australia.
It is a high time that the British will open their WW2 archives. It was supposed to be opened 50 years after the war - then is was prolonged by the British Government to 70 years and now the opening is extended to years. In it [ In it the British WW2 archives , of course, is the "whole" and true story of Rudolf Hess and his flight to England, his naive planned meeting with the Duke of Hamilton and the clever "role" that the British MI6 and others in Britain played to "lure" Rudolf Hess to England.
Do you know more about the role of the MI6? Zitat von paul It is a high time that the British will open their WW2 archives. A madman flew to Scotland, crashed, was locked up. He had nothing to offer; he worked for a team of psychopaths, and surrender didn't bring peace - only slavery and genocide. There is nothing more to add. Paul - there is no [ Paul - there is no "should"; we the British do what we like with our own national archives, and our secrets belong to us.
Thousands of us died to ensure that. Remember it. We do. Rochus Misch, one of Hitler's bodyguards, wrote in his book that Hess tried on several occasions to fly to England. He stated that Hitler did know about the flight. I think Hitler knew the two front war was impossible to maintain [ I think Hitler knew the two front war was impossible to maintain and it was a final ditch effort to try to appease the English before Barbarosa began.